PRESENTATION : RWANDA
Rwanda, a small state inside the lost African continent, has ever been an ethnical crucible historically in conflict:here is consumed and perpetrated the greatest Genocide[S1] [E1][F1][I1], to which the History has ever assisted after Auschwitz[S1][E1][F1][I1]: from April 1994, when in an attack the Rwanda president Habyarimana dies (with the Burundi president Ntaryamira) to July 1994, when the Patriotic Front Rwandese (FPR) takes the control of the territory and forms a new government, at least 500.000 persons, an average of 4.900 people by day, have been killed by hits of machete or small fire weapons.
At the end of the Genocide the 77% of the Tutsi results boundless and 2 million of Hutu runs away in the near countries for fear of repercussions and revenges.
In the whole world Rwanda comes completely abandoned to himself as the rest of Africa, seen how an adrift continent, deprived of any democratic institution, and therefore as a place where the violence predominated for a long time, while the Global economies are indifferent to the facts of this small state, completely extraneous to any economic and political interest: in fact the Rwanda massacre happens in a period of international crisis, where the War of the Balkans immobilised the whole international community and the United Nations in head, in a moment in which USA were not taken back by the dramatic failure of the operating in Somalia yet, while the whole world kept to minimise the Rwanda events on.
However these stories have rarely arrived on the first pages of the newspapers and in a great part they have been forgotten: in June of 1998 the American president Clinton has declared that the tribal resentments have been the cause of the problems of the Rwanda and an adviser of the French President Mitterand has affirmed that the brutal massacres are an usual practice among the Africans, not easily uproot: besides to liquidate the matter as an African case of ethnical conflict between tribes, the international community has not been able to activate the respect of the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights[F1][E1][I1]
and the International Convention on the Child Rights[F1][E1][I1].
JUSTIFICATION OF THE CHOICE
The teacher has chosen to treat the tragedy lived by the Rwanda population, whose Humans Rights have been for a long time violated.
Every student, at the end of this didactic unity, should become first of all aware about what happens in the world, in order to acquire a Global vision of the History, therefore every student can discover the importance of the cohabitation in a multiracial society: the ethnic conflicts are still a threaten for the establishment of a peace process, that should become one of the primary cohabitation objectives, but in reality that is often violated in name of political and economic affairs.
LENGTH OF LESSON:about 12 hours
Students have to know the philosophical bases of the Humanitarian right : the Giusnaturalismo of Grozio (idea of right "priority" in the Community or in single States); the "Leviathan" of Hobbs (the “inalienable” right to life); the contribution of Locke (principle of "reciprocity") and the birth and the affirmation of the liberal thought, in particular:
Students have to know “The Universal Declaration of the Human Rights” (1948), adopted by the General meeting of the United Nations, and in particular:
- to Know “the Rights of Before Generation” (or negative, guaranteed only with an arbitration intervention from the State)
- to Know “the Rights of Second Generation” (social or positive, among which the right to the education, affirmed through the direct intervention of the State)
- to Know “the Rights of Third Generation” (of solidarity to peace, to the environment, to the cultural fruition, the promotion of International Collaboration towards the future generations)
Student have to know the post-colonial political order of Africa, the Global political situation after the second World war, the born of International Penal Right and the Permanent International Penal Court, in particular the two additional Protocols (1977) to the 1949 Geneva Conventions: the protection of not armed victims in the international conflicts (in independence wars or civil wars), in particular:
- to Know the action of International Co-operation Organisms (United Nation, UNICEF, AMNESTY, medicines sans frontières etc.) and their specific finalities
- to know differences among "convention","constitution" and "declaration"
- to know the difference among "ratification" and "signature"
- 1980: Convention in Geneva about the regulation of the conventional weapons
- 1986: International Convention of United Nation: the approbation of Infancy Rights
Students are able to elaborate and to individualise the causes and the consequences of the events taken in examination, distinguishing among remote causes, immediate and pretexts, in particular about the Africa events.
Students are also able to elaborate again and critically the information, showing autonomy in synthesis and in organisation of contents.
Students are able to elaborate critical analysis about the phases that have characterised Genocide events and about the Tutsi extermination,at least to recognise the violations of the Rights.