Points to be careful about
Rupert Weingrif of the Open University School of Education recommends cautiousness in inferring how thinking works from the findings of brain science, namely such new imaging techniques as PET and MRI (that monitor variations in the blood flow during certain tasks) and EEG and MEG (focusing on electric and magnetic activity of the surface neurons). On these grounds he acknowledges that mind mapping may have pedagogical value, but he argues that Buzanís claim that they work because they "duplicate the way the mind works" is not grounded enough in actual sound evidence from brain research. In fact, few pedagogical practices are, according to the Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience in London (Blakemore and Frith 2000, and, building on the former, Howard-Jones, P.A. and Pickering, S. 2005, see seminar paper). Using mind mapping should also take into consideration individual learning styles [I17][F16] [ES15] and the extent to which students are comfortable with the visual approach and how much they rely on images for self expression.